In recent years, researchers have been exploring the genetic connections between modern humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) and other offshoots of the human evolutionary tree, including the Neanderthal and Denisovan lines, all of which are now extinct. Early speculations had presumed that modern humans had wiped out the inferior evolutionary lines. Yet studies confirmed that modern, non-African humans carry DNA unique to the Neanderthal genome, proving that inter-breeding occurred. A recent study shows that these Neanderthal genes continue to play significant roles in modern human biology and provide added diversity to the modern human genome. They are not simply lost remnants, but play important roles in the incredibly complex interplay of genes, gene expression and consequent biological functioning. While our species may have outcompeted other branches of the human evolutionary tree, it is now also clear that we also collaborated, at least to the extent of breeding children together. That inter-breeding has brought benefits to our species – something for which we should be grateful! As we reported previously, the myth of Neanderthal’s as brutish and cognitively deficient has been transformed in recent decades. They appear to have had art, ritual and religion. Any by some accounts, they may have been more honest and more benevolent than our own species today.